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    An extendable JSON database for Node and the browser powered by lodash
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    lowdb Node.js CI

    Simple to use local JSON database. Powered by plain JavaScript 🦉

    // Edit db.json content using plain JS
    db.data
      .posts
      .push({ id: 1, title: 'lowdb is awesome' })
    
    // Save to file
    db.write()
    
    // db.json
    {
      "posts": [
        { "id": 1, "title": "lowdb is awesome" }
      ]
    }
    

    If you like lowdb, see also xv (test runner) and steno (fast file writer).

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    Features

    • Lightweight
    • Minimalist
    • TypeScript
    • plain JS
    • Atomic write
    • Hackable:
      • Change storage, file format (JSON, YAML, ...) or add encryption via adapters
      • Add lodash, ramda, ... for super powers!

    Install

    npm install lowdb
    

    Usage

    Lowdb 3 is a pure ESM package. If you're having trouble importing it in your project, please read this.

    import { join, dirname } from 'path'
    import { Low, JSONFile } from 'lowdb'
    import { fileURLToPath } from 'url'
    
    const __dirname = dirname(fileURLToPath(import.meta.url));
    
    // Use JSON file for storage
    const file = join(__dirname, 'db.json')
    const adapter = new JSONFile(file)
    const db = new Low(adapter)
    
    // Read data from JSON file, this will set db.data content
    await db.read()
    
    // If file.json doesn't exist, db.data will be null
    // Set default data
    // db.data = db.data || { posts: [] } // Node < v15.x
    db.data ||= { posts: [] }             // Node >= 15.x
    
    // Create and query items using plain JS
    db.data.posts.push('hello world')
    const firstPost = db.data.posts[0]
    
    // Alternatively, you can also use this syntax if you prefer
    const { posts } = db.data
    posts.push('hello world')
    
    // Finally write db.data content to file
    await db.write()
    
    // db.json
    {
      "posts": [ "hello world" ]
    }
    

    TypeScript

    You can use TypeScript to type check your data.

    type Data = {
      words: string[]
    }
    
    const adapter = new JSONFile<Data>('db.json')
    const db = new Low(adapter)
    
    db.data
      .words
      .push('foo') // ✅
    
    db.data
      .words
      .push(1) // ❌
    

    Lodash

    You can also add lodash or other utility libraries to improve lowdb.

    import lodash from 'lodash'
    
    type Post = {
      id: number;
      title: string;
    }
    
    type Data = {
      posts: Post[]
    }
    
    // Extend Low class with a new `chain` field
    class LowWithLodash<T> extends Low<T> {
      chain: lodash.ExpChain<this['data']> = lodash.chain(this).get('data')
    }
    
    const adapter = new JSONFile<Data>('db.json')
    const db = new LowWithLodash(adapter)
    await db.read()
    
    // Instead of db.data use db.chain to access lodash API
    const post = db.chain
      .get('posts')
      .find({ id: 1 })
      .value() // Important: value() must be called to execute chain
    

    More examples

    For CLI, server and browser usage, see examples/ directory.

    API

    Classes

    Lowdb has two classes (for asynchronous and synchronous adapters).

    new Low(adapter)

    import { Low, JSONFile } from 'lowdb'
    
    const db = new Low(new JSONFile('file.json'))
    await db.read()
    await db.write()
    

    new LowSync(adapterSync)

    import { LowSync, JSONFileSync } from 'lowdb'
    
    const db = new LowSync(new JSONFileSync('file.json'))
    db.read()
    db.write()
    

    Methods

    db.read()

    Calls adapter.read() and sets db.data.

    Note: JSONFile and JSONFileSync adapters will set db.data to null if file doesn't exist.

    db.data // === null
    db.read()
    db.data // !== null
    

    db.write()

    Calls adapter.write(db.data).

    db.data = { posts: [] }
    db.write() // file.json will be { posts: [] }
    db.data = {}
    db.write() // file.json will be {}
    

    Properties

    db.data

    Holds your db content. If you're using the adapters coming with lowdb, it can be any type supported by JSON.stringify.

    For example:

    db.data = 'string'
    db.data = [1, 2, 3]
    db.data = { key: 'value' }
    

    Adapters

    Lowdb adapters

    JSONFile JSONFileSync

    Adapters for reading and writing JSON files.

    new Low(new JSONFile(filename))
    new LowSync(new JSONFileSync(filename))
    

    Memory MemorySync

    In-memory adapters. Useful for speeding up unit tests.

    new Low(new Memory())
    new LowSync(new MemorySync())
    

    LocalStorage

    Synchronous adapter for window.localStorage.

    new LowSync(new LocalStorage(name))
    

    TextFile TextFileSync

    Adapters for reading and writing text. Useful for creating custom adapters.

    Third-party adapters

    If you've published an adapter for lowdb, feel free to create a PR to add it here.

    Writing your own adapter

    You may want to create an adapter to write db.data to YAML, XML, encrypt data, a remote storage, ...

    An adapter is a simple class that just needs to expose two methods:

    class AsyncAdapter {
      read() { /* ... */ } // should return Promise<data>
      write(data) { /* ... */ } // should return Promise<void>
    }
    
    class SyncAdapter {
      read() { /* ... */ } // should return data
      write(data) { /* ... */ } // should return nothing
    }
    

    For example, let's say you have some async storage and want to create an adapter for it:

    import { api } from './AsyncStorage'
    
    class CustomAsyncAdapter {
      // Optional: your adapter can take arguments
      constructor(args) {
        // ...
      }
    
      async read() {
        const data = await api.read()
        return data
      }
    
      async write(data) {
        await api.write(data)
      }
    }
    
    const adapter = new CustomAsyncAdapter()
    const db = new Low(adapter)
    

    See src/adapters/ for more examples.

    Custom serialization

    To create an adapter for another format than JSON, you can use TextFile or TextFileSync.

    For example:

    import { Adapter, Low, TextFile } from 'lowdb'
    import YAML from 'yaml'
    
    class YAMLFile {
      constructor(filename) {
        this.adapter = new TextFile(filename)
      }
    
      async read() {
        const data = await this.adapter.read()
        if (data === null) {
          return null
        } else {
          return YAML.parse(data)
        }
      }
    
      write(obj) {
        return this.adapter.write(YAML.stringify(obj))
      }
    }
    
    const adapter = new YAMLFile('file.yaml')
    const db = new Low(adapter)
    

    Limits

    Lowdb doesn't support Node's cluster module.

    If you have large JavaScript objects (~10-100MB) you may hit some performance issues. This is because whenever you call db.write, the whole db.data is serialized using JSON.stringify and written to storage.

    Depending on your use case, this can be fine or not. It can be mitigated by doing batch operations and calling db.write only when you need it.

    If you plan to scale, it's highly recommended to use databases like PostgreSQL or MongoDB instead.

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